Poverty across the African continent is tremendous. But in sub-Saharan Africa, the challenge is especially great, with an estimated 218 million people living in extreme poverty. Exacerbating this trend is the fact that many in this region do not have secure sources of income. And while unemployment rates across the region vary, even richer countries such as South Africa report unemployment rates of 21.5 percent. Moreover, unemployment among Africa’s 200 million youth (ages 15-24) is particularly significant with an estimated three in five young people of working age currently unemployed.
The African diaspora is a deeply committed, yet largely untapped, source of innovative, entrepreneurial solutions to poverty and economic development in Africa. The African Diaspora Marketplace encourages sustainable economic growth and employment by supporting US-based African diaspora entrepreneurs with innovating and high-impact ideas for start-up and established businesses in sub-Saharan Africa. The business plan competition will award prizes to fifteen to thirty winners with grants of as much as $50,000 and technical assistance grants worth $10,000-20,000.
The African Diaspora Marketplace was the first diaspora entrepreneurship project to be placed on the IdEA platform and served as the inspiration for two additional IdEA programs, the Caribbean Idea Marketplace and La Idea.
The second African Diaspora Marketplace (ADM II) was launched on November 21, 2011. Sponsored by two IdEA Partners—USAID and Western Union—ADM II incorporates key learning from the first African Diaspora Marketplace, by focusing grants toward three priority, high-impact sectors in Africa:
- Renewable energy
- Information and communication technology
The African Diasopra Marketplace seeks the most promising proposals for sustainable commercially-oriented business that meet the eligibility criteria outlined below. Applications for the ADM II closed March 2, 2012, and the selection process extended until June 2012.
The ADM II was open to all US citizens or permanent residents who are members of the African diaspora community and others who have a demonstrated relevant connection to, or experience in, Africa. Business proposals could be submitted by eligible individuals, a group of eligible individuals or an eligible business based in the United States. All entries had to include a minimum of twenty-five percent ownership, which was defined as partnership or equity interest in the company, by the eligible applicant. Proposals submitted for companies that are or will be less than one hundred percent owned by a U.S. citizen or permanent resident required a partner based in the country where the business is or will be registered. In this case, the U.S. citizen or permanent resident must have owned at least twenty-five percent of the business.
Proposals had to be implemented in one of these African countries: Angola, Benin, Botswana, Cote d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, Uganda, or Zambia. The ADM II definition of African diaspora consists of people of African origin who are permanent residents or citizens of the United States. African origin includes all people of African descent not only first generation immigrants.
Proposals would only be considered if they meet the following requirements:
- Must be a start-up or established business seeking to expand or introduce goods or services.
- Must be legally registered in the African country of implementation. Businesses that are not yet legally registered may also participate in the competition provided they are able to become legally incorporated before advancing to the final round of the competition.
- Must include a minimum of 25 percent ownership by the U.S.-based applicant. Proposals that advance to the final round will be required to submit evidence of ownership.
- Eligible sectors: All commercially viable proposals in information & communication technology, ICT, agribusiness, and renewable energy will be considered. These sectors are defined as:
- ICT: A business engaged in development of product(s) derived from information and communications technologies (ICT). ICT is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning.
- Agribusiness: A business engaged in the production of food and non-food crops (including timber), the manufacture and distribution of agricultural equipment and supplies, and the processing, storage, and distribution of agricultural commodities. Provided, that any commodities are not subject to US restrictions.
- Renewable energy: A business engaged in generation of energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). Renewables include small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels.
- For Libya and Tunisia only: All commercially viable proposals will be considered; however, the ADM II is particularly supportive of proposals for business ventures working in “productive sectors” including but not limited to: agribusiness, handicrafts, textiles, tourism, environmental services such as waste management, construction and infrastructure, logistics and transportation, manufacturing and assembly, fisheries, livestock and information and communication technologies (ICT).
- Not-for-profit organizations, government institutions (national, regional or local).
- Employees, contractors, or family members of any participating sponsors (USAID, Western Union, etc.).
- ADM judges, TA providers, and consultants.
- Entities listed in Parties Excluded from Federal Procurement or Non-procurement Programs.
2012 African Diaspora Marketplace Winners
Congratulations to the seventeen businesses selected as awardees at the African Diaspora Marketplace II competition in June 2012. The event was an exciting showcase of many innovative ideas, and all of the participating businesses deserve recognition for their hard work and creative ideas. Almost 500 entrepreneurs applied to ADM II, and this year’s finalists represent the Democratic Republic of Congo, Cote D’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Libya, Nigeria, the United Republic of Tanzania, Tunisia, Uganda, and Zambia.
Here is a complete list of the 2012 African Diaspora Marketplace winning proposals:
African Boreholes Initiative, Ltd. (Kenya) is committed to providing high quality products and services which empower customers to gain access to the fundamental elements which ensure life and good health. This has been exemplified for four tears through ABI’s borehole drilling, pump installation and water management services across the country of Kenya where drought has impacted the society for the past decade. ABI has launched the Organic Amiran Farmer’s Kit. Designed to ensure farmers can raise the highest quality, natural, chemical-free, organic fruits and vegetables and get the increased economic return. Farmers will have access to local, regional and international markets. At the same time he will produce a harvest appreciated by every Kenyan mother who desires to provide nutritionally superior meals for the health of her family. Organic agriculture is a key to creating long-term food security. Chemical-free farming means soil and ground water preservation. The Organic Kit is backed by ABI’s agro-support contract in which its organic specialists work hand-in-hand with the farmer to make certain that every customer has the best opportunity to attain the maximum projected yield from his field.
Africa News Net (Kenya) is a project of Infinicity PLC, Inc. designed to provide well-written, well-curated, and professionally-presented online news, opinion, analysis, and multimedia content about and relating to Africa. It was set up to address a gap for news and content with a continental perspective, at a time when Africa is moving steadily towards greater regional integration, when cross-pollination between African business people and countries is picking up momentum. Infinicity PLC, Inc. believes that a central place for content that is both local and yet continental would be a timely and appropriate addition to the mix of voices telling an increasingly exciting African story. Its goal is to become an indispensable and valued channel for the latest news, analysis, opinion, commentary and multimedia for consumers within Africa and the Diaspora, on whatever device they use – from the traditional computer desktop or screen to the mobile device. AfricaNewsNet plans to set up editorial, sales and marketing operations in three key African cities, and eventually to establish a presence in every African country.
Comprehensive Design Services (Nigeria) is a US and Nigeria-based organization that provides responsive and responsible design, engineering and project management services for sustainable or green and affordable projects. CDS’ most important product, the Passive House Prototype or PHP is designed to help Nigeria achieve her Millennium Development Goals. It provides a vehicle, the Passive House Prototype, for widespread use of renewable energy, provision of affordable housing and enhancing the beauty and livability of the Nigerian built environment. CDS aims to be a “small but mighty organization” – small in size but mighty in creative capacity and impact. Its ultimate goal is improve the lot of, and raise the standard of living of millions of Nigerians by creating designs for affordable housing, clean water, renewable power and improved sanitation, amongst many others.
EcoPower Liberia (Liberia) uses innovative power generation technology combined with a new power distribution business model to make reliable, cheap electricity the new reality in Liberia and its neighbors. EcoPower Liberia distributes, installs and operates an electricity generating system that uses agricultural waste for fuel. Agricultural waste such as nut shells, peels, bagasse and other refuse is plentiful and cheap. This results in electricity costs as low as $0.10kWh. The only other way to generate electricity in Liberia is with diesel, but this costs over $0.50kWh, rendering anything made in Liberia uncompetitive (average world price for electricity is $0.15kWh). EcoPower Liberia’s generator dramatically reduces the cost of mechanized crop processing. Just as important, it enables processing right in the village, eliminating spoilage and greatly increasing the incomes of farmers. Its compact power plants produce power-on-demand, up to 24/7; this is necessary to enable manufacturing, cell towers, refrigeration of meat and dairy, refrigeration of medicines in hospitals, and many other uses.
Gonja Meat Company (Ghana) is a vertically integrated agribusiness engaged in the slaughter, processing and sale of fresh hygienic meat. The existing practices in Ghana’s meat industry hardly meet food safety standards. Gonja seeks to produce high quality and affordable meats using locally raised livestock, processed in the company’s abattoir and sold through its own sanitary outlet stores. Its offerings will include fresh cut poultry and meat as well as packaged, kitchen-ready products including hamburger patties, sausages, corned beef, roast beef, ham, bacon, kilishi and smoked meat. Gonja owns a full value chain from abattoir (located in Kumasi, Ghana), processing plant and retail outlets. The integration model gives the company absolute control of quality, eliminates costly middlemen and offers savings to customers. Gonja will buy livestock from local farmers and add value to the economy. The slaughterhouse opened in 2004 to provide the local butchers with a modern abattoir that conformed to international food safety standards. Gonja had no control of the meat once it left for the market. The butchers continued to disregard sanitation. Gonja changed its model by building a processing plant with outlet store so we could control the whole supply chain.
MedEnhanz Resources Ltd. (Nigeria) is a start-up venture with a mission to make up-to-date medical information readily available to healthcare professionals and to drive the use of quick reference medical information to improve patient care delivery in Nigeria. The flagship product is an accessible and affordable web-based and mobile application for point of care clinical reference information and continuing medical education. It has been developed to empower clinicians and other healthcare providers with cutting-edge knowledge to manage their patients through instant access to current world-class content such as clinical practice guidelines and algorithms, disease conditions, clinical trials, and drug information all at once at an affordable cost. With a multi-million dollar market size, and the rapid advances made in Information and Communication Technology in Nigeria in the last decade, MedEnhanz is poised to deliver value to care providers, patients and the company while closing the gap in medical service system, and make Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa a competitive quality healthcare destination.
Mobile Payment Solutions Ltd. (Zambia)is a software company specialized in payment systems, electronic and mobile commerce. Established in 2008, its mission is to transform Southern Africa into a cashless economy. By harnessing the efficiency of technology, we are significantly reducing the cost of doing business and fueling economic growth in the region. MPS products are appropriate for this market and designed with functionally, cost effectiveness and efficiency in mind. MPS has already created UtiliPay Payment Gateway, which allows bills to be presented and paid via mobile phone, internet or ATM, as well as a Mobile Banking Platform, which expands the reach of financial services to mobile phones and allows financial institutions to increase efficiency and expand their geographical reach without high operational costs. MPS is currently working on a Mobile Marketing Platform which will allow insurance companies to present simple micro-insurance products to the client through a mobile handset; communicate with clients; accept electronic payments via the mobile phone; and make payouts using mobile phone companies’ network of agents.
ORIBAGS Innovations Ltd. (Uganda) is a social and environmental enterprise in Uganda that deals in the manufacture of hand-made ecobags out of agricultural waste. The initiative ecologically recovers agricultural waste, waste paper and natural fibers to transform them into products useful for the local market. Oribags provides an eco-friendly alternative to the environmentally hazardous polythene bags provides a model of social entrepreneurship and empowers women and youth to create their own income. Oribags Innovations (U) Ltd intends to establish a medium-sized ecobags processing factory to meet the unmet demand of ecobags in Uganda. The initiative has been recognized by UNEP, UNDP and IUCN through the SEED award 2010 as an exceptional social and environmental startup enterprise. Oribags Innovations’ vision is to be the leading producer of environmentally friendly products/services in the East African region by 2020.
OTGPlaya Entity LLC (Nigeria) is a patent-pending affordable platform & infrastructure solution that combines cutting edge networking technology, emerging market wisdom and wide application to bring technology solutions to critical sectors where it is deployed. Foremost amongst these sectors is mass media, where it connects people in frontier markets to media content affordably by leapfrogging bandwidth constraints, and linking advertisers to the rising “next one billion” through a proprietary OFFLINE CLOUD, modern technology and social networking through content sharing and rewards paid for primarily by advertisers. It takes the iPad fad beyond “i” to “We” by incorporating an army of OTGPlaya device users into content acquirers, sharers and rewards beneficiaries. OTGPlaya seeks to leverage an armada of available content from the fastest growing and third largest movie industry in the world, Nollywood, with a network of kiosks with high-speed movie download capabilities across strategic urban areas in Nigeria. This network of kiosks bypasses the bandwidth limitation in broadband poor nations like Nigerian and resolves last mile reliability issues.
Pork Delights Limited (Kenya) is an established Kenyan Agribusiness pig farming entity looking to expand its annual pig production to meet a 50% supply deficit to the primary regional meat processors. In addition, PDL is expanding its business into the Renewable energy sector with the introduction of biogas and High Efficiency Organic Fertilizer (HEOF) pellets production for commercial resale and farm use. The company’s primary goal is to meet the regional food security demands with pork (the other white meat), while implementing sustainable environment farm practices – Zero Waste. PDL is owned by four passionate farmers who have identified a gap in the Kenyan pig market production and the management of pig waste and want to turn this challenge into a thriving business opportunity. In addition to Pigs, PDL will expand its revenue base through, Biogas and Fertilizer pellets. In the first three years, two of the products (Pigs and HEOF fertilizer) will be produced commercially, while biogas will be commercialized in the fourth year of production.
Poultry Health Products Nigeria Ltd. (Nigeria) was established and registered as a Limited liability company in 1988. It is an importer and exporter of agricultural raw materials, and as such, a mandated manufacturer’s representative for several farm products, including poultry, livestock and fish farming, in Nigeria. As an expert in the field of Agriculture, PHP has been severally recognized and crowned with the national award–Best Farmer of the Year–in 1999 and 2001. PHP is a household name in the supply of livestock feeds, battery cages, veterinary drugs and other products for the agricultural industry in Lagos, Ogun, Oyo, and Osun states, and in Northern and Eastern Nigeria. PHP has clients outside Nigeria, including Ghana. PHP is passionate about introducing superior products into the Nigerian market for the benefit of the people. It has two primary goals: 1) bridge the prevailing supply gap of poultry equipment by building a modern manufacturing plant and hatchery to meet the need of Nigerian farmers; 2) create jobs and drastically lower production costs, thereby producing high quality chickens and eggs affordable to the general population.
PromoTunisia (Tunisia) offers historical, cultural and Saharan journeys to Tunisia that are focused on themes such as archaeology, music, cuisine, arts & traditions to provide our travelers a unique Tunisia people experience. It is based in Tunis with a Sales & Marketing branch in the US. Its founder and General Manager, Mohamed Malouche, is the President of the Tunisian American Young Professionals (TAYP) Diaspora network. PromoTunisia differentiates itself by the authenticity of its trips, and the genuine desire to immerse visitors in Tunisian culture. It chooses small boutique hotels (called Dars which is “home” in Arabic) that are traditional, often luxurious and reminds guests that they are in Tunisia, and restaurants chosen serve fresh “menu du jour”. All guests attend traditional music concerts, plays or participate in making their own dinner. PromoTunisia is expanding its travel offerings and building upon the recent notoriety that Tunisia acquired in the US to include the sites of the Tunisian Jasmine revolution as well as WWII sites such as Carthage and the Kasserine Pass. PromoTunisia is building an e- tourism portal that will enable travelers worldwide to pick and choose their desired travel features and book Tunisia cultural travel online.
RIOL Enterprises (Nigeria) is an integrated livestock rearing and crop production farm that was incorporated in 1984. Riol Farm is located in Osoba village, Ogun State, about 50 miles from Lagos, Nigeria’s largest city with a population of over 16 million people. Riol Farms’ mission is to become the premier provider of high quality and nutritious organic poultry products including table eggs and live poultry for the Lagos marketplace. Riol Farms’ products include table eggs (all natural and nutritious, packed with high quality protein and essential vitamins and minerals), and live poultry. Birds are fed in the best organically grown grains sourced from our crop production business as well as local cooperatives. Riol Farms’ cage free eggs are produced from pullets that are reared into layer birds on site at the farm. Riol Farms is committed to its customers, workers and the community in which it operates. As a close knit operation, its workers are empowered in decision making and encouraged to contribute ideas for continuous improvement. Riol Farms gives back to the community by employing local citizens, organizing local cooperatives and sponsoring local activities.
Sardis Enterprises (Ghana) is an integrated livestock rearing and crop production farm. The Farm is located in Osoba village, Ogun State, about 50 miles from Lagos, Nigeria’s largest city with a population of over 16 million people. Riol Farms’ mission is to become the premier provider of high quality and nutritious organic poultry products including table eggs and live poultry for the Lagos marketplace. Riol Farms’ products include table eggs (all natural and nutritious, packed with high quality protein and essential vitamins and minerals), and live poultry. Birds are fed in the best organically grown grains sourced from our crop production business as well as local cooperatives. Riol Farms’ cage free eggs are produced from pullets that are reared into layer birds on site at the farm. Riol Farms is committed to its customers, workers and the community in which it operates. As a close knit operation, its workers are empowered in decision making and encouraged to contribute ideas for continuous improvement. Riol Farms gives back to the community by employing local citizens, organizing local cooperatives and sponsoring local activities.
Trafficafric Limited (Nigeria) is a company setup to provide information on traffic flow to road users. Its solutions have been designed for notably congested metropolis with a view to complementing efforts to alleviate traffic congestion and its effects in a cost effective and efficient manner. TrafficAfric intends to leverage the proliferation of smart phones, the concept of crowd sourcing and the deepening internet penetration in Nigeria for delivering metropolitan wide traffic reports to road users in key cities where traffic congestion is a challenge. The increase in the number of cars on the roads, the resulting congestion and its adverse effects creates opportunities for individuals and organizations seeking to alleviate the adverse conditions through infrastructure development or information management. While infrastructure development creates more roads and transportation infrastructure which should be the long term solution to transportation challenges, optimizing available resources leveraging technology and information management is always a viable option, and creates a unique business opportunity for organizations like TrafficAfric who can do so in a cost effective and scalable manner.
TuniLab (Tunisia) was founded in April 2012 as the first legal technology provider in Tunisia. Tunilab is a legal technology service and business solutions company catering primarily to lawyers, courts and government agencies in Tunisia and other North African countries. TuniLab helps law offices and businesses around the North African region to move toward a paper free environment that offers more document security, reliability and cost efficiency. Tunilab is developing a document management system that can provide a platform to lawyers to better manage their cases. TuniLab also offers computer forensics services, staff training and expert testimony in cases involving digital evidence. Tunilab is building its state of the art secure facility with controlled access and video monitoring, and has the capability to digitize millions of pages of paper per month. Our team is very responsive regardless of the project size. Our focus is on personalized service, quality and turnaround time. Tunilab’s main mission is to build a legal technology consulting group that will help modernize the legal and judiciary system in Tunisia.
Viable Vision Industries (Ghana) is a private limited liability company registered under the company codes and incorporated for operation in the republic of Ghana. It has been in operation since March 2010. It is the only commercial mushrooms farm in Ghana that produces and distributes master cultures, spawns, mushroom bags, and mature mushrooms all under one roof. As a result, Viable Vision Industries is virtually in competition only with itself and therefore taking advantage of the entire existing market. It also plans on setting up training centers and support programs aimed at capacity building for small scale producers and hobby growers. Viable Vision Industries currently produces only one species of mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, commonly known as Oyster mushroom. It was awarded District Best Mushrooms Farm for 2011 after just 13 months of operation. Majority shares in the company are owned by two experienced scientists with the requisite knowledge and competence to direct and supervise the full scale operations of the company.
2010 African Diaspora Marketplace Winners
In January 2010, the African Diaspora Marketplace awarded more than a dozen matching grants of $100,000 each to winning business entries in seven countries. Grantees launched the first mobile anti-counterfeiting service for pharmaceutical drugs in Nigeria, the first GPS tracking system to prevent product loss in Ethiopia, and a high-speed ferry system powered by locally-produced sunflower oil in East Africa which is connecting local economies in Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.
Here is a complete list of the 2010 African Diaspora Marketplace winning proposals:
Green Acres Goat Farm (Ghana) is a commercial goat farm that will meet the growing and unmet demand for goat meat and help fill the important gaps in Ghana’s protein consumption. The farm will rear the Boer variety of goats from South Africa for the Ghanaian domestic market. Goats will be breed and sold to stock other farmers.
TAF BioTechnology (Ethiopia) is a commercial-scale plant tissue culture business focusing on the cultivation and multiplication of cells, tissues and organs of plants with the objective of increasing the yield and quality of produce for Ethiopian agriculture producers. The company will produce plant clones (true copies of plants) in large numbers through streamlined operation of a tissue culture facility.
AMAD Metal Manufacturing (Ethiopia) is establishing a metal fabrication plant to manufacture a variety of metal products and components from raw materials. The components include trailers, mobile cranes, enclosures, furniture, and bins. Ethiopia provides an exceptional market opportunity due to its expanding economy, and the market opportunities for quality products are exponential.
Uza-Mazao (Kenya) is creating a marketplace via SMS messaging to bring unprecedented levels of efficiency to buyers or sellers of crops, farm produce, livestock or livestock products. It gives sellers the ability to find willing buyers and vice-versa. It aggregates buyers and sellers and applies a powerful algorithm to find the best match. Click here to read an article about this company’s work.
AACE Foods (Nigeria) is a food processing company with a mission to provide nutritious and tasty food made from the best of West Africa’s fruits and vegetables. Its product line will consist of jams and spreads, baby food, and spices sourced from the best fruits and vegetables in the region.
EarthWise Ferries (Uganda) will reestablish, manage, and operate a fast-ferry transportation system on Lake Victoria, with destinations in Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania. Presently many people travel between these destinations each day via poorly-maintained roads, on trips often taking between one to three days. EWF ferries will travel the 300 km from Port Bell, Uganda to Mwanza, Tanzania in about seven hours. Click here to read an article about this company’s work.
Fleet Management System (Ethiopia) will offer organized fleet dispatching, traffic monitoring, real-time delivery information using over 60,000 trucks by combining the technologies of precise positioning, using satellite GPS and GSM/GPRS.
Student Card (Ghana) is a unique technology which creates a cashless environment for schools. The solution enables a mechanism for processing and reconciling school fees through remote billing and payments. The solution also simplifies payment of school lunches. This dual pre-funded payment and student identification card maximizes process efficiency and minimizes the risk associated with handling cash.
AADT Consultants (Liberia) will provide construction material testing and quality assurance to ensure that materials and techniques used conform to standards required. This will ensure that the ongoing redevelopment of Liberia benefits from geotechnical input, oversight and third party inspections.
Sproxil (Nigeria) provides robust anti-counterfeiting and brand loyalty solutions to pharmaceutical and consumer product companies targeting emerging markets in Africa. Over the long-term, Sproxil will become a key provider of significant consumer intelligence to companies selling consumer products to targeted and valuable populations in cash-based economies.
Reliable Power (Ghana) will deploy uninterruptible power supply systems, automatic voltage regulators and efficient support services to ensure the reliability of necessary conditioned power in Ghana. The country’s emerging information and communications technology industry is currently hindered by unreliable power supply which damages equipment and leads to loss of sensitive data.
Cooking Solar Ovens/TEK Consults (Uganda) is implementing a comprehensive solar oven program in Uganda. TEK has obtained exclusive Ugandan rights to the market-leading, patented “Global Sun Oven” from Sun Ovens International of Elburn, IL. TEK’s program will decrease Uganda’s dependence on wood and agricultural waste products for cooking fuel while simultaneously improving many Ugandans’ standard of life by allowing money previously spent for cooking fuel to be spent more productively. Click here to read an article about this company’s work.
Palm Fruit Processing (Sierra Leone) will establish a palm oil processing mill in Sierra Leone to produce crude palm oil. Crude palm oil is a staple in Sierra Leone and there is a substantial demand for the product. Production of CPO in Sierra Leone is done primarily using traditional methods that are very labor intensive and also inefficient. This inefficiency, coupled with export of crude palm oil, creates an atmosphere wherein crude palm oil trades locally at a substantial premium to world market price.
Click here to read the survey results from the 2010 African Diaspora Marketplace’s participants conducted by Dr. Liesl Riddle, Co-Director of George Washington University’s Diaspora Program.
Read the transcript of a panel discussion with two winners–Dr. Raymond Rugemalira and Ronald Mutebi–as they discuss the competition and diaspora entrepreneurship.
Access a report produced by the Inter American Dialogue assessing the impact of the 2010 African Diaspora Marketplace.